From seismic surveys and Navy sonar to fisheries and shipping, many human activities in the ocean environment cause short-term changes in the behaviours of marine mammals. A longstanding challenge for scientists and regulatory agencies alike has been to understand the biological significance of those changes in terms of their overall impact on affected populations of animals.
A new study led by scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz, provides a comprehensive framework for conducting this type of assessment. Published August 25 in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the paper synthesises a huge amount of knowledge about marine mammals and research on the impacts of various disturbances. MORE
Header image: Dan Costa.